Cartoons are evil (DVLH Scoobert)
"Scooby"-Doo is a fictional dog and the eponymous character of the popular television series Scooby-Doo. At an early age he was brought to the Mystery Inc. Scooby-Doo is a Great Dane who is the pet and best friend of Shaggy Rogers Scooby-Doo was originally broadcast on CBS from 1969 to 1976, when it moved to ABC. ABC aired the show until canceling it in 1986, and presented a spin-off, A Pup Named Scooby-Doo, from 1988 until 1991. A new Scooby-Doo series, What's New, Scooby-Doo?, aired on the WB Network during the Kids' WB programming block from 2002 until 2005. The current Scooby-Doo series, Shaggy & Scooby-Doo Get a Clue!, airs Saturday mornings on The CW network. Repeats of the original series, as well as second-run episodes of What's New, Scooby-Doo?, are broadcast frequently on the Cartoon Network and Boomerang in the United States and other countries. Creation and development Very early designs by Iwao Takamoto for the Mysteries Five characters. Left to right, top row: Kelly (Daphne) and Geoff (Fred). Left to right, bottom row: W.W. (Shaggy) and Linda (Velma).In 1968, a number of parent-run organizations, most notably Action for Children's Television (ACT), began vocally protesting what they perceived as an excessive amount of gratuitous violence in Saturday morning cartoons during the mid-to-late 1960s. Most of these shows were Hanna-Barbera action cartoons such as Jonny Quest, Space Ghost and The Herculoids, and virtually all of them were canceled by 1969 because of pressure from the parent groups. Members of these watchgroups served as advisers to Hanna-Barbera and other animation studios to ensure that their new programs would be safe for children. Fred Silverman, executive in charge of children's programming for the CBS network at the time, was looking for a show that would revitalize his Saturday morning line-up and please the watchgroups at the same time. The result was The Archie Show, based upon Bob Montana's teenage humor comic book Archie. Also successful were the musical numbers The Archies performed during each program (one of which, "Sugar, Sugar", was the most successful Billboard number-one hit of 1969). Silverman was eager to expand upon this success, and contacted producers William Hanna and Joseph Barbera about possibly creating another show based around a teenage rock group, but with an extra element: the kids would solve mysteries in between their gigs. Silverman envisioned the show as a cross between the popular I Love a Mystery radio serials of the 1940s and the popular early 1960s TV show The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis. Hanna and Barbera passed this task along to two of their head storymen, Joe Ruby and Ken Spears, and artist/character designer Iwao Takamoto. Their original concept of the show bore the title Mysteries Five, and featured five teens (Geoff, Mike, Kelly, Linda, and Linda's brother "W.W.") and their dog, Too Much, who were all in a band called "The Mysteries Five" (even the dog; he played the bongos). When "The Mysteries Five" were not performing at gigs, they were out solving spooky mysteries involving ghosts, zombies, and other supernatural creatures. Ruby and Spears were unable to decide whether Too Much would be a large cowardly dog or a small feisty dog. When the former was chosen, the options became a large goofy Great Dane or a big shaggy sheepdog. After consulting with Barbera on the issue, Too Much was finally set as a Great Dane, primarily to avoid a direct correlation to The Archies (who had a sheepdog, Hot Dog, in their band). Ruby and Spears feared the Great Dane would be too similar to the comic strip character Marmaduke, but Barbera assured them it would not be a problem. Takamoto consulted a studio colleague who happened to be a breeder of Great Danes. After learning the characteristics of a prize-winning Great Dane from her, Takamoto proceeded to break most of the rules and designed Too Much with overly bowed legs, a double chin, and a sloped back, among other abnormalities. By the time the show was ready for presentation by Silverman, a few more things had changed: Geoff and Mike were merged into one character called "Ronnie" (later renamed "Fred", at Silverman's behest), Kelly was renamed to "Daphne", Linda was now called "Velma", and Shaggy (formerly "W.W.") was no longer her brother. Also, Silverman – not being very fond of the name Mysteries Five – had renamed the show Who's S-S-Scared? Using storyboards, presentation boards, and a short completed animation sequence, Silverman presented Who's S-S-Scared? to the CBS executives as the centerpiece for the upcoming 1969–1970 season's Saturday morning cartoon block. The executives felt that the presentation artwork was far too frightening for young viewers and, thinking the show would be the same, decided to pass on it. Now without a centerpiece for the upcoming season's programming, Silverman turned to Ruby and Spears, who reworked the show to make it more comedic and less frightening. They dropped the rock band element, and began to focus more attention on Shaggy and Too Much. According to Ruby and Spears, Silverman was inspired by the ad-lib "doo-be-doo-be-doo" he heard at the end of Frank Sinatra's interpretation of Bert Kaempfert's song "Strangers in the Night" on the way out to one of their meetings, and decided to rename the dog "Scooby-Doo" and re-rechristen the show Scooby-Doo, Where Are You! The revised show was re-presented to CBS executives, who approved it for production.  Scooby-Doo television series  The CBS years Shaggy and Scooby-Doo register fear after being confronted by a typical Scooby-Doo villain, a ghost from outer space. From Scooby-Doo, Where Are You! season one, episode fourteen ("Spooky Space Kook", December 20, 1969).Scooby-Doo, Where Are You! made its CBS network debut on Saturday, September 13, 1969 with its first episode, "What a Night for a Knight". The original voice cast featured Don Messick as Scooby-Doo, Casey Kasem as Shaggy, Frank Welker as Fred, Nicole Jaffe as Velma, and Stefanianna Christopherson as Daphne. Seventeen episodes of Scooby-Doo were produced in 1969. The series' eponymous theme song was written by David Mook and Ben Raleigh, and performed by Larry Marks. The influences of I Love a Mystery and Dobie Gillis were especially apparent in these early episodes; Mark Evanier, who would write Scooby-Doo teleplays and comic book scripts in the 1970s and 1980s, identified each of the four teenagers with their corresponding Dobie Gillis character: "Fred was based on Dobie, Velma on Zelda, Daphne on Thalia and Shaggy on Maynard." The similarities between Shaggy and Maynard are the most noticeable; both characters share the same beatnik-style goatee, similar hairstyles, and demeanours. The roles of each character are strongly defined in the series: Fred is the leader and the determined detective, Velma is the intelligent analyst, Daphne is danger-prone and vain, and Shaggy and Scooby-Doo are cowardly types more motivated by hunger than any desire to solve mysteries. Later versions of the show would make slight changes to the characters' established roles, most notably in the character of Daphne, shown in 1990s and 2000s Scooby-Doo productions as knowing many forms of karate and being able to defend herself. The plot of each Scooby-Doo episode followed a formula that would serve as a template for many of the later incarnations of the series. At the beginning of the episode, the Mystery, Inc. gang bump into some type of evil ghost or monster, which they learn has been terrorizing the local populace. The teens offer to help solve the mystery behind the creature, but while looking for clues and suspects, the gang (and in particular Shaggy and Scooby) run into the monster, who always gives chase. However, after analyzing the clues they have found, the gang determines that this monster is simply a mere mortal in disguise. They capture the monster, often with the use of a Rube Goldberg-type contraption built by Fred, and bring him to the police. Upon learning the villain's true identity, usually the "most helpful" character of that episode, the fiendish plot is fully explained, and the apprehended criminal would utter the famous catchphrase, or a variation thereof: "And I would have gotten away with it, if it wasn't for you meddling kids!" Scooby-Doo, Where Are You! was a major ratings success for CBS, and they renewed it for a second season in 1970. The eight 1970 episodes of Scooby-Doo, Where Are You! differed slightly from the first-season episodes in their uses of more slapstick humor, Archie Show-like "chase songs" during climactic sequences, Heather North performing the voice of Daphne in place of Christopherson, and a re-recorded version of the theme song sung by Austin Roberts. Both seasons contained a laugh track, which was the standard practice for U.S. cartoon series during the 1960s and 1970s. In 1972, after 25 half-hour episodes, the program was doubled to a full hour and called The New Scooby-Doo Movies, each episode of which featured a different guest star helping the gang solve mysteries. Among the most notable of these guest stars were the Harlem Globetrotters, the Three Stooges, Don Knotts, Sonny & Cher and Batman & Robin, each of whom appeared at least twice on the show. Hanna-Barbera musical director Hoyt Curtin composed a new theme song for this series, and Curtin's theme would remain in use for much of Scooby-Doo's original broadcast run. After two seasons and 24 episodes of the New Movies format from 1972 to 1974, the show went to reruns of the original series until Scooby moved to ABC in 1976.  The Scooby clones Every episode of the original Scooby-Doo format contains a penultimate scene in which the kids unmask the ghost-of-the-week to reveal a real person in a costume. From Scooby-Doo, Where Are You! season two, episode one ("Nowhere to Hyde", September 12, 1970).Having established a successful formula, Hanna-Barbera then proceeded to repeat it many times over. By the time Scooby-Doo had its first format change in 1972, Hanna-Barbera had produced three other teenager-based shows that were very similar to Scooby in concept and execution: Josie and the Pussycats (1970), which resurrected the idea of the rock band to the teenage-crime-fighter formula; The Pebbles and Bamm-Bamm Show (1971), which re-imagined the toddlers from The Flintstones as high school students; and the most blatant Scooby clone, The Funky Phantom (also 1971), which featured three teens, a real ghost and his ghostly cat solving spooky mysteries. Later cartoons such as The Amazing Chan and the Chan Clan (1972); Goober and the Ghost Chasers, Speed Buggy, Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kids, and Inch High, Private Eye (all 1973); Clue Club and Jabberjaw (both 1976); Captain Caveman and the Teen Angels (1977); Buford and the Galloping Ghost (1978); and the Pebbles, Dino, and Bamm-Bamm segments of The Flintstone Comedy Show (1980) would all involve groups of teenagers solving mysteries or fighting crime in the same vein as Scooby-Doo, usually with the help of a wacky animal, ghost, etc. For example, Speed Buggy featured three teens and a talking dune buggy in the role of "Scooby", while Jabberjaw used four teens and a talking shark in a futuristic underwater environment. Some of these shows even used the same voice actors and score cues. Even outside studios got in on the act: when Joe Ruby and Ken Spears left H-B in 1977 and started Ruby-Spears Productions, their first cartoon was Fangface, yet another mystery-solving Scooby clone. During the 1970s, the imitating programs successfully coexisted alongside Scooby on Saturday mornings. Most of the mystery-solving Hanna-Barbera shows made before 1975 were featured on CBS, and when Fred Silverman moved from CBS to ABC in 1975, the mystery-solving shows, including Scooby-Doo, followed him.  The ABC years The addition of Scrappy-Doo (right) to the series in 1979 would coincide with a change in the Scooby-Doo formula. From the opening credits of Scooby-Doo and Scrappy-Doo.On ABC, the show went through almost yearly format changes. For their 1976–1977 season, new episodes of Scooby-Doo were joined with a new Hanna-Barbera show, Dynomutt, Dog Wonder, to create The Scooby-Doo/Dynomutt Hour. (It became The Scooby-Doo/Dynomutt Show when a bonus Scooby-Doo, Where Are You! rerun was added to it in November 1976.) This hour-long package show later evolved into the longer programming blocks Scooby's All-Star Laff-A-Lympics (1977–1978) and Scooby's All-Stars (1978–1979). New Scooby episodes, in the original Scooby-Doo, Where Are You! format, were produced for each of these three seasons. Four of these episodes featured Scooby's dim-witted country cousin Scooby-Dum as a semi-regular character. The Scooby-Doo episodes produced during these three seasons were later packaged together for syndication as The Scooby-Doo Show, under which title they continue to air. For the Scooby's All-Star Laff-A-Lympics and Scooby's All-Stars programming blocks, Scooby-Doo was packaged alongside Laff-A-Lympics, a new Hanna-Barbera cartoon featuring many of its characters in parodies of Olympic sporting events. Scooby-Doo appeared on the show as the team captain of the "Scooby Doobies" team, with Shaggy and Scooby-Dum among his teammates. In 1979, Scooby's tiny nephew Scrappy-Doo was added to both the series and the billing, in an attempt to boost Scooby-Doo's slipping ratings. The 1979–1980 episodes, aired under the title Scooby-Doo and Scrappy-Doo, succeeded in regenerating interest in the show, and as a result the entire show was overhauled in 1980 to focus more upon Scrappy-Doo. Fred, Daphne, and Velma were dropped from the series, and the new Scooby-Doo and Scrappy-Doo format was now comprised of three seven-minute comedic adventures starring Scooby, Scrappy, and Shaggy instead of one half-hour mystery. This version of Scooby-Doo and Scrappy-Doo aired as part of The Richie Rich/Scooby-Doo Show from 1980 to 1982, and as part of The Scooby-Doo/Scrappy-Doo/Puppy Hour from 1982 to 1983. Most of the supernatural villains in the seven-minute Scooby and Scrappy cartoons, who in previous Scooby series had been revealed to be human criminals in costume, were now "real" within the context of the series. Daphne returned to the cast for The All-New Scooby and Scrappy-Doo Show in 1983, which comprised two 11-minute episodes in a format reminiscent of the original Scooby-Doo, Where Are You! mysteries. This version of the show lasted for two seasons, with the second season airing under the title The New Scooby-Doo Mysteries and featuring semi-regular appearances from Fred and Velma. 1985 saw the debut of The 13 Ghosts of Scooby-Doo, which featured Daphne, Shaggy, Scooby, Scrappy, and new characters Flim-Flam and Vincent Van Ghoul (based upon and voiced by Vincent Price) traveling the globe to capture "thirteen of the most terrifying ghosts and ghouls on the face of the earth." The final first-run episode of The 13 Ghosts of Scooby-Doo aired in March 1986, and no new Scooby series aired on the network for the next two years. Reruns of previous Scooby episodes, however, continued to air, both as part of the Scooby-Doo Mystery Funhouse package and under the New Scooby and Scrappy-Doo Show banner. Hanna-Barbera reincarnated the original Scooby-Doo, Where Are You! cast as junior high school students for A Pup Named Scooby-Doo, which debuted on ABC in 1988. A Pup Named Scooby-Doo was an irreverent, zany re-imagining of the series, heavily inspired by the classic cartoons of Tex Avery and Bob Clampett, and eschewed the quasi-reality of the original Scooby series for a more Looney Tunes-like style. The retooled show was a success, and lasted until 1991.  Reruns and revival Scooby-Doo and Shaggy, in a scene from What's New, Scooby-Doo?Reruns of the show have been in syndication since the mid-1980s, and have also been shown on cable television networks such as TBS Superstation (until 1989) and USA Network (as part of the USA Cartoon Express from 1990 to 1994). In 1993, A Pup Named Scooby-Doo, having just recently ended its network run on ABC, began reruns on the Cartoon Network; the other versions of Scooby-Doo joined it the following year and became exclusive to Turner networks such as the Cartoon Network, TBS Superstation, and TNT. Canadian network Teletoon began airing Scooby-Doo, Where Are You! in 1997, with the other Scooby series soon following. When TBS and TNT ended their broadcasts of H-B cartoons in 1998, Scooby-Doo became the exclusive property of both Cartoon Network and sister station Boomerang. In 2002, following the successes of the Cartoon Network reruns and four late-1990s direct-to-video Scooby-Doo releases, the original version of the gang was updated for the 21st century for What's New, Scooby-Doo?, which aired on Kids' WB from 2002 until 2005, with second-run episodes also appearing on Cartoon Network. Unlike previous Scooby series, the show was produced at Warner Bros. Animation, which had absorbed Hanna-Barbera in 2001. The show returned to the familiar format of the original series for the first time since 1978, with modern-day technology and culture added to the mix to give the series a more contemporary feel, along with new, digitally-recorded sound effects and music. With Don Messick having died in 1997, Frank Welker took over as Scooby's voice actor, while continuing to provide the voice of Fred as well, and Casey Kasem returned as Shaggy. Grey DeLisle provided the voice of Daphne (she first took the role on Scooby-Doo and the Cyber Chase, replacing Mary Kay Bergman, who committed suicide shortly before the release of Scooby-Doo and the Alien Invaders) and former Facts of Life star Mindy Cohn voiced Velma. After three seasons, What's New, Scooby-Doo was replaced in September 2006 with Shaggy & Scooby-Doo Get a Clue!, a major revamping of the series which debuted on The CW's Kids' WB Saturday morning programming block. The premise centers around Shaggy inheriting money and a mansion from an uncle, an inventor who has gone into hiding from villains trying to steal his secret invention. The villains, led by "Dr. Phibes" (based primarily upon Dr. Evil from the Austin Powers series, and named after Vincent Price's character from The Abominable Dr. Phibes), then use different schemes to try to get the invention from Shaggy and Scooby, who handle the plots alone. Fred, Daphne, and Velma are normally absent, but do make appearances at times to help. The characters were redesigned and the art style revised for the new series. In a more recent revival, they explain the origins of the mystery machine. It was originally owned by a keyboardist named Flash Flannagan. He painted it in flowers to remind it of his home, and childhood life. The Mystery Machine was a home away from from home for Flash. Flash is now in rock and roll heaven (deceased). His last gig was with the Mystery Kids, a kids band. He got angry during the live performance, and stormed off. It is not known how he died. The new owner of the Mystery machine was owned by the kids band The Mystery Kids. They then sold it to make some cash. It is not known how the Scooby Doo gang had gotten ahold of the Mystery Machine. So it is not know who owned the Mystery Machine, or even if it did have a previous owner after the Mystery Kids owned it. When Flash owned the van, it was only he painted it himself. It did not have the name The Mystery Machine painted on. The Mystery Kids painted the van's name. The van never had a name. That was when they got the idea to name the van The Mystery Machine.  Television specials, telefilms, and direct-to-video features The direct-to-video film Scooby-Doo on Zombie Island marked the first time the original quintet of Scooby characters had appeared together in their original forms since 1984.The Scooby-Doo characters first appeared outside of their regular Saturday morning format in Scooby Goes Hollywood, an hour-long ABC television special aired in prime time on December 13, 1979. The special revolved around Shaggy and Scooby's attempts to have the network move Scooby out of Saturday morning and into a prime-time series, and featured spoofs of then-current TV shows and films such as Happy Days, Superman, Laverne & Shirley, and Charlie's Angels. From 1986 to 1988, Hanna-Barbera Productions produced Hanna-Barbera Superstars 10, a series of syndicated telefilms featuring their most popular characters, including Yogi Bear, Huckleberry Hound, The Flintstones, and The Jetsons. Scooby-Doo, Scrappy-Doo, and Shaggy starred in three of these movies: Scooby-Doo Meets the Boo Brothers (1987), Scooby-Doo and the Reluctant Werewolf (1988), and Scooby-Doo and the Ghoul School (1988). In addition, Scooby-Doo and Shaggy appeared as the narrators of the made-for-TV movie Arabian Nights, originally broadcast by TBS in 1994 and later released on video as Scooby-Doo in Arabian Nights. Starting in 1998, Warner Bros. Animation and Hanna-Barbera (by then a subsidiary of Warner Bros.), began producing one new Scooby-Doo direct-to-video movie a year. These movies featured a slightly older version of the original five-character cast from the Scooby-Doo, Where Are You! days, and disregards the later Scrappy-Doo years as non-canonical. The movies include Scooby-Doo on Zombie Island (1998), Scooby-Doo and the Witch's Ghost (1999), Scooby-Doo and the Alien Invaders (2000), and Scooby-Doo and the Cyber Chase (2001). Also in 2001, the Cartoon Network produced Night of the Living Doo, a half-hour parody of the New Scooby-Doo Movies format featuring "special guest stars" David Cross, Gary Coleman, Mark Hamill and Big Bad Voodoo Daddy, complete with a classic retro-feel. The success of the direct-to-video movies led to Scooby's return to Saturday morning, What's New, Scooby-Doo?, and Hanna-Barbera based later entries in this series of Scooby movies on it rather than the previous editions. This includes Scooby-Doo and the Legend of the Vampire (2002), Scooby-Doo and the Monster of Mexico (2003), Scooby-Doo and the Loch Ness Monster (2004), Aloha, Scooby-Doo! (2004), Scooby-Doo! in Where's My Mummy? (2005), Scooby-Doo! Pirates Ahoy! (2006), and Chill Out, Scooby-Doo! (2007). A number of these Scooby-Doo telefilms and direct-to-video features, as well as many of the early-1980s shows featuring Scrappy-Doo, feature the gang encountering actual supernatural beings. In Scooby-Doo and the Ghoul School (1988), Shaggy, Scooby, and Scrappy sign up as gym teachers for Miss Grimwood's school for girls, only to find it is actually a school for ghouls, where the trio end up teaching the daughters of Frankenstein's monster, Dracula, the Wolf Man, The Mummy, and the stereotypical ghost monster (Phantasma the Phantom). Scooby-Doo on Zombie Island (1998) featured the original 1969 gang, reunited after years of being apart, battling voodoo-worshiping cat creatures in the Louisiana bayou. Scooby-Doo and the Witch's Ghost featured an author (Tim Curry) returning to his home with the gang, to find out that an event is being haunted by the author's dead grandmother; who was an actual witch. The later What's New, Scooby-Doo-based entries in the direct-to-video series returned to the original formula, and are basically extended episodes of the What's New, Scooby-Doo series, with the exceptions of Scooby-Doo and the Legend of the Vampire and Scooby-Doo and the Monster of Mexico, both of which were done in a retro style, which unlike the newer TV series, made it resemble an old Scooby-Doo, Where Are You? production, complete with the original voice cast and sound effects.  Live-action Warner Bros. feature films A feature-length live-action film version of Scooby-Doo was released by Warner Bros. in 2002. The cast included Freddie Prinze, Jr., as Fred, Sarah Michelle Gellar as Daphne, Matthew Lillard as Shaggy, and Linda Cardellini as Velma. Scooby-Doo was created on-screen by computer-generated special effects. Scooby-Doo was a successful release, with a domestic box office gross of over $130 million. However, the film was not well reviewed: film critic Roger Ebert, who stated that he had never seen the original television series, gave Scooby-Doo one star (on a scale of zero to four), saying: "I feel no sympathy with any of the characters, I am unable to generate the slightest interest in the plot, and I laughed not a single time." A sequel, Scooby-Doo 2: Monsters Unleashed, followed in March 2004, and earned US$84 million at the U.S. box office. Warner Bros.' 2002 live-action Scooby-Doo feature film was a box office success, and resulted in a sequel two years later.The 2002 film version departed considerably from the standard Scooby-Doo formula in that the paranormal is real and the skepticism of the original series is ridiculed. Various elements of that formula are parodied in both movies. While the first film had generally original characters as the villains (except for one villain revealed as a surprise plot twist), the second film featured several of the monsters from the television series, including the Black Knight, the 10,000 Volt Ghost, the Pterodactyl Ghost, the Miner 49er, and Chickenstein. The animated versions of Shaggy and Scooby make a cameo appearance in the 2003 film Looney Tunes: Back in Action, complaining to Matthew Lilard about how they were portrayed in the live action films.  The Scooby influence  Critical reaction and awards While a successful series during its three separate tenures on Saturday morning, Scooby-Doo won no awards for artistic merit during its original series runs. The series has received only two Emmy nominations in its four-decade history: a 1989 Daytime Emmy nomination for A Pup Named Scooby Doo, and a 2003 Daytime Emmy nomination for What's New, Scooby-Doo's Mindy Cohn in the "Outstanding Performer in an Animated Program" category. Like many Hanna-Barbera shows, Scooby-Doo was criticized for poor production values and formulaic storytelling. In 2002, Jamie Malanowski of The New York Times commented that "[Scooby-Doo's] mysteries are not very mysterious, and the humor is hardly humorous. As for the animation -- well, the drawings on your refrigerator may give it competition." Even proponents of the series often comment negatively about the formula inherent in most Scooby episodes. Science advocate Carl Sagan, however, favorably compared the formula to that of most television dealing with paranormal themes, and considered that an adult analogue to Scooby-Doo would be a great public service. Nevertheless, Scooby-Doo has maintained a significant fan base, which has grown steadily since the 1990s due to the show's popularity among both young children and nostalgic adults who grew up with the series. The show's mix of the comedy-adventure and horror genres is often noted as the reason for its widespread success. As Fred Silverman and the Hanna-Barbera staff had planned when they first began producing the series, Scooby-Doo's ghosts, monsters, and spooky locales tend more towards humor than horror, making them easily accessible to younger children. "Overall, [Scooby-Doo is] just not a show that is going to overstimulate kids' emotions and tensions," offered American Center for Children and Media executive director David Kleeman in a 2002 interview. "It creates just enough fun to make it fun without getting them worried or giving them nightmares." Many teenage and young adult audiences enjoy Scooby-Doo because of presumed subversive themes which involve theories of drug use and sexuality. In recent years, Scooby-Doo has received recognition for its popularity by placing in a number of "top cartoon" or top cartoon character" polls. The August 3, 2002, issue of TV Guide featured its list of the "50 Greatest Cartoon Characters of All Time", in which Scooby-Doo placed twenty-second Scooby also ranked thirteenth in Animal Planet's list of the "50 Greatest TV Animals". Scooby-Doo, Where Are You! ranked forty-ninth in the UK network Channel 4's 2005 list of the "100 Greatest Cartoons of All Time". For one year from 2004 to 2005, Scooby-Doo held the Guinness World Record for having the most episodes of any animated television series ever produced, a record previously held by and later returned to The Simpsons. Scooby-Doo was published as holding this record in the 2006 edition of the Guinness Book of Records. Subsequent television shows and films often make reference to Scooby-Doo, for example Wayne's World and the television series, Buffy the Vampire Slayer, in which Buffy and her monster-slaying friends refer to themselves as the "Scooby Gang" or "Scoobies", a knowing reference to Scooby-Doo. (Coincidentally, Sarah Michelle Gellar, who played Buffy, later played Daphne in the live-action movies). Even South Park paid homage to Scooby-Doo in an episode entitled "Ko?n's Groovy Pirate Ghost Mystery". The Kevin Smith film, Jay and Silent Bob Strike Back, included a scene where Jay and Silent Bob are picked up in the Mystery Machine while hitchhiking and both they and Mystery, Inc., get "high" off of "dooby snacks". A plethora of other media properties have referenced or parodied Scooby-Doo, among them the TV Funhouse segment of NBC's Saturday Night Live , the online comic Sluggy Freelance, the FOX animated series, Family Guy and The Simpsons, and the Cartoon Network programs Johnny Bravo, The Grim Adventures of Billy & Mandy, Harvey Birdman, Attorney at Law and The Venture Bros.  Assumed "adult themes" As with many Saturday morning cartoons, Scooby-Doo is often alleged to have hidden subtexts, in this case involving sex and drug use. Such assumptions often find their way into Scooby-Doo parodies done by comedians, musicians, and film/television producers. Drug use is the most prominent of these charges, in particular because of Shaggy's beatnik origins. He and Scooby-Doo are shown to have voracious appetites, which has been interpreted as being evidence of a case of "the munchies" resulting from marijuana use. It is also believed that Shaggy and Scooby Doo's perpetual state of paranoia during mystery investigations, in contrast to the calm demeanor displayed by the other lead characters, is due to marijuana use. Some parodies go on to propose that the "Scooby Snacks" present in many episodes contain drugs instead of typical dog treat ingredients. The most direct references to the Scooby-Doo drug-use theory were produced by Warner Bros. and Cartoon Network themselves. The first live-action Scooby-Doo film makes several joking references to Shaggy and Scooby's purported drug use and even has Shaggy fall in love with a girl named "Mary Jane" (a common slang term for marijuana) and an early scene of smoke coming out of a vent in the roof of the van (but then showing it's just steam from their cooking), while an episode of the Adult Swim cartoon Harvey Birdman, Attorney at Law finds Shaggy and Scooby-Doo arrested for alleged possession of marijuana. Also discussed and parodied are the presumed sexual activities going on among the Scooby-Doo characters. While working on the original series, Joe Ruby and Ken Spears often wrote their "straight men", Fred and Daphne, out of the episode so that they could focus on their "comedians": Shaggy, Scooby, and Velma. As a result, Fred and Daphne are missing from a significant amount of the action in most episodes, leading to assumptions that the two are off having sex instead of finding clues. Like the drug use, this assumed theme has also been self-parodied, with the "Bravo Dooby Doo" episode of Johnny Bravo, and both live-action and direct-to-video Scooby-Doo features making light of Fred and Daphne's presumed sexual relationship. Another debated topic of the series centers around whether or not the tomboyish Velma is a lesbian. (Indeed, the character was based on the Dobie Gillis character Zelda, played by Sheila Kuehl – who later revealed her homosexuality.) The character has a considerable fan base among real-life lesbians, who see her as one of their own. The idea of Velma as a lesbian is parodied in the 2001 motion picture Jay and Silent Bob Strike Back, the "¡Viva los Muertos!" episode of The Venture Bros. (which featured a caricature of radical feminist and would-be Andy Warhol assassin Valerie Solanas as the Velma character), as well as both Scooby-Doo live-action films. Many, but not all, of the lesbian-themed gags from the first Scooby-Doo film, which center around a hinted crush Velma has on Daphne in the film, were excised from the final release print to secure a PG rating. A 1968 Chevrolet Sportvan 108, painted to look like the Mystery Machine from Scooby-Doo. A number of Scooby fans have decorated vans in this fashion.  Merchandising The first Scooby-Doo-related merchandise came in the form of Scooby-Doo, Where Are You! comic books by Gold Key Comics, which initially contained adaptations of episodes of the cartoon show when publication began in December 1969. The book soon moved to all-original stories, and continued publication until December 1974. Charlton published Scooby comics, many drawn by Bill Williams, from February 1975 to October 1975. Since then, Scooby-Doo comics have been published by Marvel Comics (written by Mark Evanier and drawn by Dan Spiegle), Archie Comics (reprints of the Charlton stories), and DC Comics, who continue to publish a monthly Scooby-Doo series. Other early Scooby-Doo merchandise included a 1973 Milton Bradley board game, decorated lunch boxes, iron-on transfers, coloring books, story books, records, underwear, and other such goods. When Scrappy-Doo was introduced to the series in 1979, he, Scooby, and Shaggy became the sole foci of much of the merchandising, including a 1983 Milton-Bradley Scooby-Doo and Scrappy-Doo board game. The first Scooby-Doo video game appeared in arcades in 1986, and has been followed by a number of games for both home consoles and personal computers. Scooby-Doo multivitamins also debuted at this time, and have been manufactured by Bayer since 2001. Scooby-Doo merchandising tapered off during the late 1980s and early 1990s, but increased after the series' revival on Cartoon Network in 1995. Today, all manner of Scooby-Doo-branded products are available for purchase, including Scooby-Doo breakfast cereal, plush toys, action figures, car decorations, and much more. Real "Scooby Snacks" dog treats are produced by Del Monte Pet Products. Hasbro has created a number of Scooby board games, including a Scooby-themed edition of the popular mystery board game Clue. In 2007 the Pressman Toy Corporation released the board game Scooby Doo 3D Haunted House (see external link below for more information). Beginning in 2001, a Scooby-Doo childrens' book series was authorized and published by Scholastic. These books, written by Suzanne Weyn, include originals stories and adaptations of Scooby theatrical and direct-to-video features. From 1990 to 2002, Shaggy and Scooby-Doo appeared as characters in the Funtastic World of Hanna-Barbera simulator ride at Universal Studios Florida. The ride was replaced in the early 2000s with a Jimmy Neutron attraction, and The Funtastic World of Hanna-Barbera instead became an attraction at several properties operated by Paramount Parks. Shaggy and Scooby-Doo are costumed characters at Universal Studios Florida, and can be seen driving the Mystery Machine around the park. Televangelism is the use of television to communicate the Christian faith. The word is a portmanteau of television and evangelism and was coined by Time magazine.  A televangelist (from television and evangelist) is a person, often a minister, who has become known for their Christian TV broadcasts. Both terms carry slightly derogatory connotations and are normally only used by critics of the phenomenon. Some televangelists are also regular pastors or ministers in their own halls of worship (often a megachurch), but the majority of their followers come from their TV and radio audiences. Others do not have a conventional congregation as such and solely work through television. Televangelism began as a peculiarly American phenomenon, resulting from a largely deregulated media where access to television networks is open to virtually anyone who can afford it, combined with a large Christian population that is able to provide the necessary funding. However, the increasing globalisation of broadcasting has enabled some US televangelists to reach a wider audience through international broadcast networks, including some that are specifically Christian in nature, such as Trinity Broadcasting Network and The God Channel. Domestically produced televangelism is increasingly present in some other nations such as Brazil. Some countries have a more regulated media with either general restrictions on access or specific rules regarding religious broadcasting. In such countries, religious programming is typically produced by TV companies (sometimes as a regulatory or public service requirement) rather than private interest groups. Controversies Televangelists are the subject of considerable controversy. Both their methods and theology have received widespread criticism from both church and secular sources. Many televangelists are featured on discernment websites run by Christians that are concerned about what they see as departures from sound Christian faith. The following are amongst the issues that have been raised: Lack of accountability. Many televangelists exist outside of established churches. They have little or no oversight from denominational structures and many are accountable to no-one. In cases where their ministry is run by a board of directors, this is frequently made up of family members and other people who will not challenge the televangelist. Many are not members of the Evangelical Council for Financial Accountability, an independent organisation which promotes high financial standards amongst Christian ministries. Supernatural theology. Most televangelists hold charismatic or Pentecostal viewpoints, believing in spiritual gifts, divine healing, and other miracles. These subjects remain controversial within Christian thinking. In some instances, claims of miracles have been shown to be fraudulent. Flamboyant lifestyles. Many televangelists have accumulated significant personal wealth from their ministries and own large properties, luxury cars, and even private jets. This is seen by critics to be contradictory to Christian principles. There is also frequently confusion between personal and ministry assets. Financial emphasis. Televangelism requires substantial amounts of money to produce programs and purchase airtime on cable and satellite networks. Televangelists devote much time to fundraising activities. Products such as books, CDs, DVDs, and trinkets with supposedly miraculous powers, are aggressively promoted to viewers. Opponents regard such an emphasis as inappropriate and also question whether the money would be better used relieving poverty or employing traditional missionaries. Personality cult. Traditional Christian teaching emphasises the following of Jesus and not a particular preacher, however televangelism tends to build a personality cult around the televangelist. Health and wealth teaching. Many televangelists preach a prosperity gospel that promises material success to believers, subject to their generous donations to the “work of God”, which inevitably means the televangelist. This is regarded as a serious heresy by other Christians. False prophecies. Numerous televangelists have issued false prophecies, for example Benny Hinn’s claim that Fidel Castro would die in the 1990s, or Pat Robertson's claim that the War in Iraq would end in 2006. Many other televangelists have made false prophecies of the Second Coming. False teaching. Televangelists frequently depart from or add to traditional Christian doctrines. Entertainment focus. The style of televangelism seems to mirror that of the secular entertainment industry, with emphasis on celebrity, slick production, and aggressive marketing. Exploitation. Followers of televangelists frequently are poor and uneducated, lacking the ability to critically analyse the message they are presented with, which frequently links a blessing from God to making sacrificial donations to the televangelist. This has led to claims of exploitation of the vulnerable. Crowd manipulation. Allegations have been made that many televangelists use psychological techniques, including mass hypnosis, to produce the desired response from people in what is a charged emotional atmosphere. Disputed success. Televangelists claim to be reaching millions of people worldwide with the gospel and producing numerous converts to Christianity. However, such claims are difficult to verify independently. It has also been questioned whether non-believers actually watch Christian television. Televangelists often strongly dispute these criticisms and claim they are doing God's work.  Scandals Main article: Christian televangelist scandals Numerous televangelists have been at the center of well-publicised scandals, including financial, sexual, and religious. Many televangelists promote the doctrine of divine healing and would claim that God can heal people through them. Christian views on this subject vary, and it is seen as pseudoscience and charlatanry by skeptics. Some claims of healing miracles by televangelists have been exposed as a fraud, for example in the case of Peter Popoff. A series of scandals in the 1980s resulted in the fall from grace of several famous televangelists, including Jim Bakker, who served a prison sentence for financial improprieties associated with his ministry, and Jimmy Swaggart, who made a famous tearful confession to a dalliance with a prostitute. Most of these televangelists have continued preaching, nonetheless, even though their audiences may be a small fraction of what they were at the height of their popularity. One of the most prominent examples of this is the notorious Oral Roberts incident of 1987, in which the televised preacher demanded that his audience give him $8,000,000 or "God would call him home". He ended up raising $9.1 million. Pat Robertson and Jerry Falwell achieved further notoriety in 2001 with their conviction that the September 11 terrorist attacks constituted divine retribution provoked by rampant sexual immorality. In 2005, Robertson announced on The 700 Club that Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez ought to be "taken out" by the US government. Many viewed this as a call for assassination. Later that year, in November, Robertson warned the town of Dover, Pennsylvania of a severe natural disaster following the defeat of the local school board for advocating intelligent design. In 2006, Robertson said God smote Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon after he withdrew troops from the Gaza Strip. Brazil is also a country in which televangelists have found success, and it isn't uncommon for them to become involved in scandals. In 1992, Edir Macedo, a Brazilian televangelist and founder of the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God was imprisoned for accusations of charlatanism, and spent some days in prison. More recently, in 2002, the Época magazine, controlled by Globo media group published two new articles making accusations at Igreja Renascer em Cristo. In 2006, Brazilian Justice blocked all goods of the Hernandes couple, leaders of the church because of accusations of money laundering, fraud and identity theft.  In Popular Culture Televangelism has brought the relatively obscure culture of pentecostal Christianity to a wider (and secular) audience. In 2001 the German video artist Christian Jankowski collaborated with televangelist Pastor Peter Spencer to create a piece called "The Holy Artwork". In the video Jankowski collapses on the stage and the pastor delivers a long sermon about art, using Jankowski's work in video as a metaphor to explain Christian beliefs. While this video was a type of collaboration between the artist and pastor they each have separate objectives and it is ultimately not clear whether the piece is mocking the cultural phenomenon of televangelism or helping to promote it (or both). Televangelism is a popular subject for parody and satire in popular culture. The Bloom County comic strip was one of the most notable and frequent spoofers, featuring a local Moral Majority leader and, later, Bill the Cat preaching as "Oral Bill". Films spoofing televangelism include Pray TV, Salvation!, Fletch Lives and Pass the Ammo, while the subject got a more serious if still farcical treatment in The People vs. Larry Flynt. Adult magazines including Flynt's Hustler have often spoofed televangelism. Many songs by Frank Zappa are sharp satires of televangelism, for example: "The Meek Shall Inherit Nothing", "Dumb All Over", "Jesus Thinks You're A Jerk". Genesis released a song called Jesus He Knows Me that satirised televangelism. Also, The Mirrorball Man, a scandalous televangelist was one of the personas of U2's Bono during the American legs of their Zoo TV tour also was a parody of televangelists. A critically acclaimed televangelist film is Robert Duvall's movie The Apostle, which he wrote, directed, financed and starred in. The Apostle includes sequences starring real televangelists in a tag-team revival meeting. Elmer Gantry is a 1927 novel by Sinclair Lewis. It tells the story of a young, obnoxious, womanizing college athlete who, upon realizing the power, prestige, and easy money that being a preacher can bring, pursues his "religious" ambitions with relish, contributing to the downfall, even death, of key people around him as the years pass. Although he continues to womanize, is often exposed as a fraud, and frequently faces a complete downfall, Gantry is never fully discredited and always manages to emerge triumphant and to reach ever greater heights of social status. The novel ends as the Rev. Gantry prays for the USA to be a "moral nation" and simultaneously admires the legs of a new choir singer. The 1960 film of the same name starred Burt Lancaster as Gantry and Jean Simmons as Sister Sharon Falconer. He-Man ("The Most Powerful Man in the Universe") is a heroic fictional character in the toy series Masters of the Universe ("MOTU") and the various spin-off products and media related to it. The most prominent is the animated series He-Man and the Masters of the Universe, produced by Filmation Studios. The syndicated series premiered in 1983 and ran until 1985, for a run of 130 episodes. In the series, He-Man and his friends defend Eternia and the secrets of Castle Grayskull from the evil forces of Skeletor. This was followed in 1990 by The New Adventures of He-Man which has He-Man summoned to the future world of Primus. In 2002, a remake was shown on Cartoon Network. The character's name comes from the old term "he-man" which is a strong, masculine and sexually virile male.Fictional character biography As with many parts of the Masters of the Universe story, He-Man's background and origins are somewhat retconned in successive versions of the story and it is sometimes difficult to reconcile the various versions. In the earliest series of minicomics released with the original toys, He-Man is a wandering barbarian on the world of Eternia, which is dealing with the aftermath of a Great War that has devastated the civilizations that once ruled supreme over all lesser beings, but has left behind advanced machinery and weaponry. The Sorceress of Castle Grayskull, called "The Goddess" in some early appearances, gives He-Man special powers and weapons, and he sets out to defend the secrets of Castle Grayskull from the evil villain Skeletor. Starting with the third series of mini-comics, the scenario is somewhat revised: He-Man's true identity is Prince Adam, the son of King Randor (called King Miro in early literature, a name that would later be given to Adam's grandfather) and Queen Marlena, the rulers of the planet Eternia, who live in the Kingdom of Eternos. Marlena is later stated in the Filmation cartoon series to be from the planet Earth, making He-Man only half-Eternian. In the new version of events, The Sorceress of Castle Grayskull endows Prince Adam with the power to transform into He-Man by holding aloft his magic sword (called the "Sword of Power", or the "Power Sword") and proclaiming, "By the power of Grayskull...I have the power!". In these early revised versions, the Sword of Power has been split into two halves, with one half entrusted to He-Man, and Skeletor searching for, or occasionally possessing the other half, desperate to possess both halves as it will give him the power to conquer Castle Grayskull. As events were revised further, the concept of the two halves of the Sword of Power was dropped, although it lingered on in some media, with the Sword of Power being one. This was carried over into the 2002 series. Prince Adam's pet is a cowardly green tiger named Cringer. When Adam changes to He-Man, Cringer becomes a giant, brave armored green tiger named Battle Cat when filled with the magical power cast from He-Man's sword. Battle Cat, like He-Man, had existed prior to his alter ego, also serves as He-Man's steed and fierce fighting companion. Adam is friendly with the beautiful and strong-willed Teela, the female Captain of the Royal Guard and adoptive daughter of his mentor Duncan. Adam and Teela grew up together, and now as the Captain of the Guard, Teela is entrusted to protect the Prince, something that she does loyally, although she often sees Adam as lazy and cowardly, not aware of his dual identity as He-Man. Teela is revealed to be the only daughter of The Sorceress, and the future inheritor of Grayskull - however, The Sorceress gave her up for adoption when she was just a baby after her father died. Duncan—also known as Man-At-Arms—is the Eternian royal family's innovator of technology and weapons. In many episodes, Man-At-Arms unveils new and fantastic weapons that help He-Man and his friends. Castle Grayskull, which resembles a gigantic skull, is the source of He-Man's powers. Inside the Castle lives the Sorceress, who grants Prince Adam his transformative abilities, and communicates telepathically with He-Man. She also created He-Man's harness from a rare Eternian mineral called Korodite, which adds to his physical strength. To protect his family, He-Man keeps his double identity secret, sharing the knowledge only with Man-At-Arms, Orko, Cringer/Battle Cat, and the Sorceress; with the advent of the She-Ra: Princess of Power series, this list is expanded to also include Adora/She-Ra, Spirit/Swift Wind, Light Hope, Loo-Kee, Madame Razz, and Kowl. The original cartoon series also includes the dragon Granamyr, the cosmic enforcer Zodak and at the end of a later episode, "The Rainbow Warrior" it is lightly hinted, although never confirmed or played on, that Queen Marlena may possibly also know his secret. He-Man is usually accompanied by an assortment of allies in his battles, such as Ram-Man and Stratos. Later, it is revealed that Adam has a twin sister named Adora, theoretically the Princess of Eternia, but in fact a leader in The Great Rebellion against Hordak on the planet Etheria. Adora, like Adam, has been given the gift of the power of Grayskull and has her own sword which she uses to transform into She-Ra, Princess of Power. He-Man makes a number of appearances in the She-Ra: Princess of Power television series. He-Man's chief adversary is Skeletor, a blue-skinned sorcerer with a skull for a head, wearing a cowl. He is skilled in black magic as well as all forms of combat. Skeletor's weapon of choice is his Havoc Staff, a ram's skull atop a large rod, which serves to channel his magic and amplify his powers. The Havok Staff also allows Skeletor to engage in the remote viewing of events on and around Eternia. Though his origin is mysterious, and the cartoon describes him only as a "demon from another dimension," a tie-in comic implies that Skeletor's true identity is Prince Keldor, younger brother of King Randor, thus making him He-Man's uncle. It is revealed in the He-Man motion picture He-Man and She-Ra: The Secret of the Sword that Skeletor was Hordak's right-hand man up until his capture, and supposed release. Skeletor's base of operations is Snake Mountain, a fortress made of polished black basalt, which has a giant stone snake coiled around it. Snake Mountain is located on the Dark Hemisphere of Eternia. Skeletor leads a motley crew of henchmen against He-Man and his associates; the most popular are the sorceress Evil-Lyn, the bumbling lord of the animal world Beast Man, the bionic Trap-Jaw, multi-sighted Tri-Klops, and fish lord Mer-Man. In the 1980s series, He-Man/Adam is voiced by John Erwin, for many the definitive He-man, a congenial hero with an endless supply of one liners. In the 1987 live-action feature film, he is played by Dolph Lundgren. Gary Chalk provides the voice of He-Man for the 1989 series The New Adventures of He-Man, and later the voice of Man-At-Arms for the 2002 series. He does not provide the voice of Prince Adam; Adam is instead voiced by Doug Parker, unlike the 1983 and 2002 series, where Adam and He-Man were voiced by the same actor. In the 2002 series, He-Man is voiced by Cam Clarke.  He-Man and Conan connection The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. Specific concerns may be found on the talk page. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions.(December 2007) Originally, the He-Man action figures were designed as a toy line for the Conan The Barbarian movie, but Mattel president Ray Wagner decided instead to come up with a new proprietary male action line, for possibly one or two reasons: So as to avoid paying royalties to another company After seeing the movie and all its violence and sexuality, they knew that few children would be allowed to view it, and would be a marketing disaster. So they put a mop of blonde hair on the figures and changed his name to He-Man. The toys that had already been put into production were changed and combined with the ideas of Ray Wagner. Wagner wanted a strong line to compete with the then popular Star Wars line of toys; a license that he had ironically rejected purchasing for Mattel in 1977. In an attempt to fulfill Wagner's request, the He-Man concept came into existence, with Roger Sweet heading its development. Sweet's hard work resulted in the "He-Man trio", three 9½ inch tall prototype figures created using "Big Jim" molds. One was a barbarian fantasy themed figure, one a military toy in the vein of G.I. Joe and one was a Star Wars-esque space man, complete with jet-pack. Several months of development work occurred at Mattel before the new Masters Of The Universe line began to hit the market in late 1981. Filmation writers and many other varied personnel joined in to contribute greatly to the success of the line.  History of the He-Man action figure He-Man & Battle Cat (1982)  The Original "Masters of the Universe" toy line The first He-Man action figure was released by Mattel in 1981, and had a twist waist and power punch action. The figure came with the power sword, a battle axe and a shield, together with a removable harness. In 1982 the figure was also released in a set with either Battle Cat or the Wind Raider vehicle. The He-Man figure was released again in 1983 together with Teela and Ram-Man; and the figure was also released in 1986 together with the Jet Sled vehicle. Starting with the third wave of figures in 1984, a different He-Man variant, and corresponding Skeletor variant, was released with each new wave. The first alternate version was entitled Battle Armor He-Man. The chest contained a springloaded rotating drum bearing three "damage indicators". As before, the power sword and battle axe were included. The figure was also re-released the same year, in a two-pack with Battle Armor Skeletor, and the figure was also available packaged with the Road Ripper vehicle. In 1986, the figure was released again, together with Battle Armor Skeletor and Orko. Another alternate version was released in 1985, with the name Thunder Punch He-Man. The toy was powered with caps to make a bang when he threw a punch. The power sword, colored mustard gold with this version of the character, and shield were released with the figure, together with some red caps. The same year, Battle Armor He-Man was re-released with Battle Cat, and again in a collector's pack with Man-at-Arms and Man-E-Faces. 1986 saw the release of another version, named Flying Fists He-Man. The figure's arms moved as his waist rotated. The figure included a spinning trident mace and a rotating shield. A double-pack was later released containing both Flying Fists He-Man and Terror Claws Skeletor. In 1988, a final version was released for the original toy line, entitled Laser Power He-Man, which lit up He-Man's Power Sword powered by batteries inserted into the back of the figure. The figure was limited to releases in Italy and Spain, although it also appeared in some major department stores in London, England, and is one of the rarest and most highly sought after figures of the toy-line due to its limited release. This figure is also notable in that, whereas previous alternate versions had stuck to the basic original He-Man head, this new version had a completely new head sculpt, inspired in part by He-Man's appearance in the 1987 movie. It should also be noted that He-Man, along with all of the early figures, was originally released with a hollow rubber 'squeezable' head. In the later days of the line, the He-Man figure, as with a number of the early figures, was altered to have a solid head. The soft head version is the far more common of the two, with the hard head version being relatively scarce. Thunder Punch He-Man and Flying Fists He-Man were released with hard heads; Battle Armor He-Man, like the original version, was originally released with a soft head, but later also appeared with a hard head. Not all countries of production adopted the later hard head alteration.  The "He-man" toy line In 1989 Mattel re-launched the He-man brand, albeit with some major differences from the older toys. Instead of using the characters and setting from the old "Masters of the Universe" line, He-man and Skeletor were decked out in new space themed armor with new weapons and new cohorts. In fact, the only two original characters that were made into figures in the new "He-man" line were He-man and Skeletor.  "Masters of the Universe toy line" (2002) The newest series of Mattel toys designed by the Four Horsemen was produced in tandem with the new cartoon that was aired by Cartoon Network. The new toyline was made surprisingly faithful to the original line, with the characters gently "re-imagined" and updated in terms of sculpting detail rather than radically reinterpreted. Some characters were marginally more redesigned than others with merely more detailed and "mature" sculpts. Most redesigns simply involved making certain elements slightly more hyperbolic. The new He-Man figure was generally faithful to the original version, although some long-term collectors felt that his muscles had been toned down too much and he now looked "gangly". The strongest point of criticism from many fans was the radical redesign of the Power Sword, which went from its originally slender appearance to what many saw as now being "ugly". The toyline was ultimately short-lived, lasting less than three years. Many fans and market commentators believe that the line's failure was twofold: an excessive focus on attempting to mass-market the line to a new generation of children rather than focusing on a safer collector-based approach and instead of consistently releasing new characters Mattel massively over-produced gratuitous recolours and variants, sometimes quite minor, of already-released figures. Some fans also feel that the new line was too compromised - while being fairly faithful to the original, at the same time shoe-horning in heavy Manga / Anime and other current trend influences, losing some of the original line's distinctive appeal in the process. Since the discontinuation of the toyline, NECA toys has taken the unprecedented step of continuing the toyline through the use of action figure sized mini-statues scaled and sculpted to be aesthetically compatible for display alongside the Mattel toys, thus allowing fans to fill out their collections with other Four Horsemen redesigned characters that had yet to be produced as figures when the toyline was cancelled. According to a December 8, 2005 interview with a Mattel representative on he-man.org, NECA offered to produce fully-articulated action figures for Mattel without taking any credit, but permission was denied nevertheless. Instead, NECA was only permitted to produce nonarticulated statues.  He-Man in live action In 1987, Cannon Films produced a Live-action film Masters of the Universe which features Dolph Lundgren in the role of He-Man. Although the film was not received well upon its release, it has developed a strong cult following over recent years. Despite accusations that Lundgren was "embarrassed" about the movie, he has repeatedly stated his pride in his work in the movie. Although generally portrayed in much the same manner as other media, there were several notable differences in the character of He-Man within the movie. His use of a gun in several scenes, rather than his characteristic sword, caused controversy among fans. Also, there was no mention of his secret identity of Prince Adam within the film, implying the makers envisioned him as having only one permanent identity, as is the case in the early mini-comics. There was not even any direct indication that his powers came from Castle Grayskull; nor that he possessed any superhuman abilities, save for a few depictions of enormous strength; such as overpowering Beast Man in a fight and pushing over a giant statue. He is portrayed generally as a standard hero, although widely recognized and regarded as a great leader and Eternia's best hope of survival. However, at the climax of the story he does retrieve his sword from Skeletor and cries "I have the power!", seemingly replenishing his strength. It has also been suggested by fans that, as the movie starts partway into the story, with Skeletor already having captured the Sorceress and taken control of Castle Grayskull, that Prince Adam could have transformed into He-Man prior to the events we see on-screen, and simply did not transform back into Adam during the story due to the critical nature of the situation.  Powers and abilities He-Man is characterized by his immense strength. In the intro sequence of the 1980s cartoon series he claims to be "The Most Powerful Man in the Universe". Similar wording is also used in early packaging of He-Man toys. He-Man's strength is an issue rarely tackled and seems to vary depending on the adaptation. In his first DC comics appearance he was able to trade punches with Superman. Typical of most adaptations is that He-Man is often shown successfully attempting feats deemed impossible by other characters. Episodes of the original cartoon also depict him as being able to swim at a far faster rate than is humanly possible. It is unknown if there is a limit to how long He-Man can remain He-Man before he reverts back to his original form of Adam, but in the 2002 series, He-Man is shown enduring the brunt of at least two large explosions, which he survives, but reverts back to Adam in the process, suggesting that even He-Man has a limit as to how much abuse he can endure before his superhuman strength and stamina is exhausted. His physical prowess is not limited to strength, however, and he is also depicted as being extremely fast and acrobatic. These traits do not show themselves in He-Man's movie appearance, but this may had been due to budgetary reasons, as well as the fact that Dolph Lundgren, in the absence of a fitting stunt double, was forced to perform all his own stunts. On the other hand, He-Man as a character is largely non-violent and usually only resorts to combat as a last resort, usually preferring to outsmart his adversaries, his most violent actions usually consist of picking up an enemy and tossing him away like a rag doll, though the 1987 film and 2002 series show him fighting more aggressively. He-Man is also depicted as a leader, most noticeably in the movie adaptation where he is referred to as the leader of the resistance. Sometimes He-Man's intellect appears to cross a point not within his character, but this usually happened in the original 80s cartoon. He-Man's primary weapon is his sword, but he also uses other weapons, such as a laser-gun in the film, and equipment while battling his foes. His sword is able to deflect bolts of energy both magical and technological. Originally He-Man's primary weapon was an axe. His chest harness is made of an Etherian mineral called Korodite that helps add to his physical strength. Due to his costume he can rarely carry large items with him. The 1980s cartoon depicts He-Man sometimes carrying items in his chest-plate and in some cases in his belt. This has caused some irritation with fans who consider the latter cases as embarrassing to the character. The He-Man and the Masters of the Universe cartoon by Filmation also gives He-Man a number of powers many fans considered silly or over-cartoonish and which in result have not appeared in other versions. Such powers include: He-Man being able to blow, using the full-capacity of his lungs, a gust of wind powerful enough to knock over most opponents (similar to Superman's "super-breath"). Able to transform himself into a human tornado (sometimes with the aid of spinning his sword) to divert objects, or even fly short distances on rare occasions ("Evilseed" and "The Shadow of Skeletor" being two such examples). Able to run at high speed, creating a vacuum ("The Once and Future Duke") Able to rub his hands together fast enough to turn sand into glass (as seen in "Temple of the Sun") Punched a falling moon which was on a collision course with Eternia and shattered it to a billion pieces with his bare fist. There are also dubious feats specific to plot, such as an inexplicable ability to fix a broken chain by merely connecting its both ends ("Evil-Lyn's Plot"), and to adjust the course of one of Eternia's moons by flying a Wind Raider to it and pushing it ("Eternal Darkness").  Other Media A He-Man parody, He-Bro, appeared in 2006 on the TV show Wonder Showzen which portrays He-Man as a Jewish black man who can stretch his muscles like Plastic Man. The feature stays true to the actual Filmation style. He-Man was briefly spoofed in the fifth season The Simpsons episode "The Front". An animation awards ceremony included a clip of 'Strong-Dar: Master of Akom: The Wedding Episode'. There were physical similarities between the two characters, primarily being blond and muscular. He-Man was parodied in an episode of Round The Bend (a children's TV show shown on CBBC in the UK), as Wee-Man and The Masters of The Loo-nyverse. He-Man was briefly seen in the 4th season of Family Guy episode "Brian the Bachelor" jumping on a donkey as Prince Adam, then changing into He-Man, complete with the appropriate music and sound effects and voiced by the original He-Man, John Erwin. He-Man appeared in the Robot Chicken episode "Toy Meets Girl" voiced by Adam Talbot. In the "Where Are They Now" segment, He-Man is shown as a security guard. Tom Root voices He-Man in the episode "Shoe" where He-Man is accidentally killed by Beast Man. Penny Arcade satirizes Wikipedia with Skeletor.He-Man was satirized by Penny Arcade where Skeletor vandalized his Wikipedia entry. He-Man makes a cameo in the Drawn Together episode "Breakfast Food Killer." He is among the characters seen auditioning to become the next cereal mascot. He is missing his cross pattée here. As well as appearing in every Master of the Universe and New Adventures minicomic he also appeared in The Story of She-Ra, the first She-Ra minicomic.